Women In Research

T hey were leaders in building the early foundation of modern programming and unveiled the structure of DNA. Their work inspired enviro...



They were leaders in building the early foundation of modern programming and unveiled the structure of DNA. Their work inspired environmental movements and led to the discovery of new genes. They've gone to space and back, taught us about the natural world, dug up the earth and discovered the origins of our species. They broke the sound barrier — and gender barriers along the way. The world of research wouldn't be the same without the pioneering efforts of famous research works made by these women. Be inspired by these explorers and early adopters- the women in research, who helped to shape our society. We invite you to sit with their stories and enter new areas of understanding.
This list is by no means a complete record of women to whom we are indebted for their research work, but here are 7 of history's greatest research contributions made by women :


1. Marie Curie - The Mother Of Atom Bomb
Marie Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She holds the record for the first female to be awarded with a Nobel Prize. She invented the first mobile X-ray machine which helped to check the injured soldiers in the battlefield. She carried out the first research into the treatment of tumors with radiation. Radium is another great invention from her. Curie experimented different elements to check their radioactivity and found thorium. She also invented the pitch-blend which was the source of radiation in a mixture more powerful than uranium or thorium.





2. Rita Levi-Montalcini- The Discoverer Of Nerve Growth Factor
Rita Levi-Montalcini was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology. She discovered critical chemical tools that the body uses to direct cell growth and build nerve networks, opening the way for the study of how those processes can go wrong in diseases like dementia and cancer. Rita Levi-Montalcini shared the 1986 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for her part in the discovery of a protein that stimulates nerve cell growth. She also learned a technique for silver staining nerve cells that made the cells clearly visible under a microscope. Even towards the end of her life, Levi-Montalcini continued conducting research every day.




3. Nettie Stevens - The Discoverer of Sex Chromosomes
Nettie Stevens was an American biologist and geneticist. She is renowned for her revolutionary research on XY chromosomes, the link between genetics and sex determination. She began researching chromosomes — small structures in the nucleus of cells that hold DNA. In her research with mealworms, she discovered that sperm contains either an X or Y chromosome, while an egg has only an X chromosome. An XX pairing would create a female and an XY pairing would create a male. Nettie Stevens was one of the first female scientists to make a name for herself in the biological sciences. Her books include : Studies in Spermatogenesis with Especial Reference to the Accessory Chromosome Parts I and II.


4. Rosalind Franklin - The Dark Lady Of DNA 
Rosalind Elsie Franklin was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite. She is best known for her role in the discovery of the structure of DNA, and for her pioneering use of X-ray diffraction. Her work on the Double Helix structure supplied information about the original source materials for those that followed. Franklin also led her pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic and polio viruses. She did an important research into the micro-structure and properties of coals and other carbons, and spent the last five years of her career elucidating the structure of plant viruses, notably tobacco mosaic virus.


5. Chien Shiung Wu - The First Lady Of Physics
 Chien Shiung Wu was a Chinese-American physicist with expertise in the techniques of experimental physics and radioactivity. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project where she helped to develop the process for separating uranium metal into the U-235 and U-238 isotopes by gaseous diffusion. She later performed experiments that contradicted the "Law of Conservation of Parity". She also developed improved Geiger counters for measuring nuclear radiation levels.She has received many honors, awards, and honorary degrees for her accomplishments.




6. Jane Goodall - The Woman Who Redefined Man
 Jane Goodall is a British primatologist, ethologist, anthropologist, and UN Messenger of Peace. She created one of the most trailblazing studies of primates in modern times when she dwelled with Tanzanian chimps to observe their behavior. By remaining in almost constant contact with the chimps, she discovered a number of previously unobserved behaviors such as, the chimps have a complex social system, complete with ritualized behaviors and primitive but discernible communication methods, including a primitive "language" system containing more than 20 individual sounds. She is credited with making the first recorded observations of chimpanzees eating meat and using and making tools. Goodall's fieldwork led to the publication of numerous articles and five major books.

7. Margaret Hamilton - The Woman Who Put Man On The Moon
 Margaret Hamilton (born 1938) is an American former NASA scientist, and founder and CEO of software development company Hamilton Technologies, Inc. Hamilton is credited for coining the term “software engineering”. In this field she pioneered the concepts of asynchronous software, priority scheduling, end-to-end testing, and man-in-the-loop decision capability, such as priority displays which then became the foundation for ultra reliable software design. She has contributed in various projects including The SAGE Project and The Apollo Project/ NASA. Margaret Hamilton has published 130 papers, proceedings and reports concerned with the 60 projects and 6 major programs in which she has been involved.

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